Pursuit of Well-being: Testing the Role of Empowerment, Transformational leadership, Work Engagement and Work Environment


  • Abdul Latif Institut Teknologi dan Bisnis Nasional




This study aims to determine the effect of Empowerment, Transformational Leadership, Work Engagement, Work Environment. Employee well-being is an important topic in human resource management studies because it is believed to be able to produce a positive effect on company achievements. The population in this study were all employees in North Sumatra who had at least 3 years of work experience. The sample in this study was 265 employees, sampling was carried out using a saturated sampling technique or census sampling, where all members of the population were sampled. The data analysis technique used is Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) partial least square. Data processing in this study was assisted by using the Smart PLS3 application. The results showed that: Empowerment has a positive and significant effect on employee well-being.



Download data is not yet available.


Almeida, V. A. de, Tridayanti, H., & Arif, M. (2019). The Effect of Leadership Style and Work Environment on Employee Performance of Bnctl Branch Banks (Banco Nacional De Comercio De Timor-Leste). IJEBD (International Journal Of Entrepreneurship And Business Development), 3(1), 70–76. https://doi.org/10.29138/ijebd.v3i1.951

Anderson, L., Ostrom, A., Corus, C., Fisk, R., Gallan, A., Giraldo, M., Mende, M., Mulder, M., Rayburn, S., Rosenbaum, M., Shirahada, K., & Williams, J. (2013). Transformative service research: An agenda for the future. Journal of Business Research, 66, 1203–1210. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2012.08.013

Arnold, K. A., Connelly, C. E., Walsh, M. M., & Martin Ginis, K. A. (2015). Leadership styles, emotion regulation, and burnout. In Journal of Occupational Health Psychology (Vol. 20, pp. 481–490). Educational Publishing Foundation. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0039045

Bakker, A. B., & Costa, P. L. (2014). Chronic job burnout and daily functioning: A theoretical analysis. Burnout Research, 1(3), 112–119. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.burn.2014.04.003

Barling, J., Christie, A., & Hoption, C. (2011). Leadership. In APA handbook of industrial and organizational psychology, Vol 1: Building and developing the organization. (pp. 183–240). American Psychological Association. https://doi.org/10.1037/12169-007

Bass & Avolio. (1994). Improving organizational effectiveness through transformational leadership. In B. M. Bass & B. J. Avolio (Eds.), Improving organizational effectiveness through transformational leadership. Sage Publications, Inc.

Carnevale, J. B., Huang, L., Uhl-Bien, M., & Harris, S. (2020). Feeling obligated yet hesitant to speak up: Investigating the curvilinear relationship between LMX and employee promotive voice. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 93(3), 505–529. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1111/joop.12302

Chiang, C.-F., & Hsieh, T.-S. (2012). The impacts of perceived organizational support and psychological empowerment on job performance: the mediating effects of organizational citizenship behavior. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 31, 180–190.

Cicolini, G., Comparcini, D., & Simonetti, V. (2014). Workplace empowerment and nurses’ job satisfaction: a systematic literature review. Journal of Nursing Management, 22(7), 855–871. https://doi.org/10.1111/jonm.12028

Conger, J. A., & Kanungo, R. N. (1988). The empowerment process: Integrating theory and practice. The Academy of Management Review, 13, 471–482. https://doi.org/10.2307/258093

Danna, K., & Griffin, R. W. (1999). Health and Well-Being in the Workplace: A Review and Synthesis of the Literature. Journal of Management, 25(3), 357–384. https://doi.org/10.1177/014920639902500305

Daragmeh, A., Sági, J., & Zéman, Z. (2021). Continuous intention to use e-wallet in the context of the covid-19 pandemic: Integrating the health belief model (hbm) and technology continuous theory (tct). Journal of Open Innovation: Technology, Market, and Complexity, 7(2). https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc7020132

Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2008). Hedonia, eudaimonia, and well-being: an introduction. Journal of Happiness Studies, 9(1), 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10902-006-9018-1

Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2012). Motivation, personality, and development within embedded social contexts: An overview of self-determination theory. In The Oxford handbook of human motivation. (pp. 85–107). Oxford University Press.

Demerouti, E., & Cropanzano, R. (2010). From thought to action: Employee work engagement and job performance. In Work engagement: A handbook of essential theory and research. (pp. 147–163). Psychology Press.

Diener, E., & Seligman, M. E. P. (2002). Very Happy People. Psychological Science, 13(1), 81–84. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9280.00415

ELDOR, L., & HARPAZ, I. (2016). A process model of employee engagement. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 37(2), 213–235. https://www.jstor.org/stable/26610525

Farndale, E., Van Ruiten, J., Kelliher, C., & Hope-Hailey, V. (2011). The influence of perceived employee voice on organizational commitment: An exchange perspective. Human Resource Management, 50(1), 113–129. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1002/hrm.20404

Frazier, M. L., & Fainshmidt, S. (2012). Voice Climate, Work Outcomes, and the Mediating Role of Psychological Empowerment: A Multilevel Examination. Group & Organization Management, 37(6), 691–715. https://doi.org/10.1177/1059601112463960

Ghaedi, F., Ashouri, E., Soheili, M., & Sahragerd, M. (2020). Nurses’ empathy in different wards: A cross-sectional study. Iranian Journal of Nursing and Midwifery Research, 25(2), 117–121. https://doi.org/10.4103/ijnmr.IJNMR_84_19

Guest, D. E. (2017). Human resource management and employee well-being: towards a new analytic framework. Human Resource Management Journal, 27, 22–38.

Hafee, I., Yingjun, Z., Hafeez, S., Mansoor, R., & Rehman, K. U. (2019). IMPACT OF WORKPLACE ENVIRONMENT ON EMPLOYEE PERFORMANCE: MEDIATING ROLE OF EMPLOYEE HEALTH. Business, Management and Education.

Hair, J., Anderson, R., Babin, B., & Black, W. (2010). Multivariate Data Analysis.pdf. In Australia : Cengage: Vol. 8 edition (p. 758).

Hair, J. F., Risher, J. J., Sarstedt, M., & Ringle, C. M. (2019). When to use and how to report the results of PLS-SEM. European Business Review, 31(1), 2–24. https://doi.org/10.1108/EBR-11-2018-0203

Hongyun, T., Fonjong, B., Kongkuah, M., & Barfi, R. (2021). Impacts of Job Stress and Overall Compensation Benefits on Employees’ Job Satisfaction with Moderation Effect of Leadership: An Empirical Study in the Telecommunication Industry of Cameroon. Open Journal of Business and Management, 09, 44–73. https://doi.org/10.4236/ojbm.2021.91003

Ichsan, R. N., Surianta, E., & Nasution, L. (2020). Pengaruh disiplin kerja terhadap kinerja pegawai negeri sipil (PNS) di lingkungan Ajudan Jenderal Daerah Militer (Ajendam)-I Bukitbarisan Medan. Jurnal Darma Agung, 28(2), 187–210.

Inceoglu, I., Thomas, G., Chu, C., Plans, D., & Gerbasi, A. (2018). Leadership behavior and employee well-being: An integrated review and a future research agenda. The Leadership Quarterly, 29(1), 179–202. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.leaqua.2017.12.006

Kataria, A., Garg, P., & Rastogi, R. (2013). Employee Engagement and Organizational Effectiveness : The Role of Organizational Citizenship Behavior. Internal Journal of Business Insights & Transformation, 6(1), 102–113. http://eds.a.ebscohost.com/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=0341343f-f115-4a3c-83ab-9018eb15c699%40sessionmgr4002&vid=1&hid=4211

Konczak, L. J., Stelly, D. J., & Trusty, M. L. (2000). Defining and Measuring Empowering Leader Behaviors: Development of an Upward Feedback Instrument. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 60(2), 301–313. https://doi.org/10.1177/00131640021970420

Kuoppala, J., Lamminpää, A., Liira, J., & Vainio, H. (2008). Leadership, Job Well-Being, and Health Effects—A Systematic Review and a Meta-Analysis. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 50(8). https://journals.lww.com/joem/Fulltext/2008/08000/Leadership,_Job_Well_Being,_and_Health_Effects_A.4.aspx

Laschinger, H.S.; Read, E. (2017). Workplace empowerment and employee health and wellbeing. In In The Routledge Companion to Wellbeing at Work (1st ed.).

Magnier-Watanabe, R., Uchida, T., Orsini, P., & Benton, C. (2020). Organizational virtuousness, subjective well-being, and job performance. Asia-Pacific Journal of Business Administration.

Marin-Garcia, J. A., & Bonavia, T. (2021). Empowerment and employee well-being: A mediation analysis study. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 18(11). https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18115822

Nyakundi, G. M. (2020). Influence of Competence on Performance of Teachers in Public Secondary Schools in Kisii County-Kenya. Journal of Education and Practice, 11(3), 173–180. https://doi.org/10.7176/jep/11-3-19

Patterson, P., Buranapin, S., & Kantabutra, S. (2015). Frontline employees’ cognitive appraisals and well-being in the face of customer aggression in an Eastern, collectivist culture. Journal of Services Marketing, 29. https://doi.org/10.1108/JSM-12-2013-0328

Pohan, M. Y. A. (2022). The Influence of Product Quality on Positive Word-of-mouth Communication , Case Study at Kedai Wak Edoy Malang. 3(2).

Rathi, N., & Lee, K. (2017). Role of basic psychological need satisfaction in retaining talent: an investigation in the Indian context. Asia-Pacific Journal of Business Administration, 9, 2–15.

Raziq, A., & Maulabakhsh, R. (2015). Impact of Working Environment on Job Satisfaction. Procedia Economics and Finance, 23, 717–725. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/S2212-5671(15)00524-9

Ryff, C. D. (1989). Happiness is everything, or is it? Explorations on the meaning of psychological well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 57, 1069–1081.

Schaufeli, W. B., Taris, T. W., & Van Rhenen, W. (2008). Workaholism, Burnout, and Work Engagement: Three of a Kind or Three Different Kinds of Employee Well-being? Applied Psychology, 57(2), 173–203. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1464-0597.2007.00285.x

Schutte, N., Toppinen, S., Kalimo, R., & Schaufeli, W. (2000). The factorial validity of the Maslach Burnout Inventory—General Survey (MBI—GS) across occupational groups and nations. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 73, 53–66. https://doi.org/10.1348/096317900166877

Shore, L. M., Barksdale, K., & Shore, T. H. (1995). Managerial perceptions of employee commitment to the organization. Academy of Management Journal, 38, 1593–1615. https://doi.org/10.2307/256845

Spreitzer, G. (2008). Taking Stock: A Review of More Than Twenty Years of Research on Empowerment at Work (pp. 54–72). SAGE.

van der Meer, P. H. (2018). What makes workers happy: Empowerment, unions or both? European Journal of Industrial Relations, 25(4), 363–376. https://doi.org/10.1177/0959680118817683

Visnjic, I., Jovanovic, M., Neely, A., & Engwall, M. (2017). What brings the value to outcome-based contract providers? Value drivers in outcome business models. International Journal of Production Economics, 192, 169–181. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.IJPE.2016.12.008

Weer, C. H., & Greenhaus, J. H. (2017). Managers’ Assessments of Employees’ Organizational Career Growth Opportunities: The Role of Extra-Role Performance, Work Engagement, and Perceived Organizational Commitment. Journal of Career Development, 47(3), 280–295. https://doi.org/10.1177/0894845317714892

Westerman, J. W., & Yamamura, J. H. (2007). Generational preferences for work environment fit: Effects on employee outcomes. Career Development International, 12(2), 150–161. https://doi.org/10.1108/13620430710733631

Wright, T. A., & Cropanzano, R. (2007). The Happy/Productive Worker Thesis Revisited. Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management, 26(October), 269–307. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0742-7301(07)26006-2

Wu, Y., Wang, J., Liu, J., Zheng, J., Liu, K., Baggs, J., Liu, X., & You, L. (2019). The impact of work environment on workplace violence, burnout, and work attitudes for hospital nurses: A structural equation modeling analysis. Journal of Nursing Management, 28. https://doi.org/10.1111/jonm.12947

Yoo, M. S., & Kim, K. J. (2017). Exploring the Influence of Nurse Work Environment and Patient Safety Culture on Attitudes Toward Incident Reporting. JONA: The Journal of Nursing Administration, 47(9). https://journals.lww.com/jonajournal/Fulltext/2017/09000/Exploring_the_Influence_of_Nurse_Work_Environment.6.aspx




How to Cite

Latif, A. (2022). Pursuit of Well-being: Testing the Role of Empowerment, Transformational leadership, Work Engagement and Work Environment. International Journal of Business, Technology and Organizational Behavior (IJBTOB), 2(6), 688–699. https://doi.org/10.52218/ijbtob.v2i6.242